Observation: The idea of doing a quick needs assessment at the beginning of a presentation is a good idea. The hand raising method seems to work well.
Prebriefing an be done through a written letter in advance – What do your learners need to know in advance? Novice learners may need to know more than advanced learners.
Briefing: Information given just before a scenario.
In real life professionals know something about the situation before going in to care for a patient.
It is important to have a skilled facilitator debriefing simulations. Debriefing is a skill that takes practice.
Language is important
- Power: Who has a voice in the scenario and who does not?
- There are people with formal power (in their role) and those that have informal power
- Privilege: Earned or unearned access and power by virtue of race or gender
- Bias: A form of prejudice that results from a need to classify individuals
- A problem occurs when biases are based on inaccurate information
Intersectionality – People have more than one group that they identify with.
The opposite of racist is being anti-racist.
Being an ally is dependent on the context and is a lifelong commitment to self-improvement. You do not self-identify as an ally – Others identify you as an ally and thank you but don’t go around tweeting about being an ally.
Optimally we should be leveraging content experts developing curriculum, context experts who understand the environments, and a cultural expert. We need people to give us the dose of reality from the end user perspective.
- Concept example: Breaking bad news – You need someone with an understanding of the literature, an understanding of the clinical context, and culture might be Inuit patients.
They gave us an activity – think about what we are doing well now and what our challenges are.
Prelearning should be things they do before the simulation (they listed a lot of options like readings, definitions, notes, videos, etc.). A framework for thinking about how to improve out practice was derived from Foronda et al. (2022).