Observation: The idea of doing a quick needs assessment at the beginning of a presentation is a good idea. The hand raising method seems to work well.

Prebriefing an be done through a written letter in advance – What do your learners need to know in advance? Novice learners may need to know more than advanced learners.

Briefing: Information given just before a scenario.

In real life professionals know something about the situation before going in to care for a patient.

It is important to have a skilled facilitator debriefing simulations. Debriefing is a skill that takes practice.

Language is important

  • Power: Who has a voice in the scenario and who does not?
    • There are people with formal power (in their role) and those that have informal power
  • Privilege: Earned or unearned access and power by virtue of race or gender
  • Bias: A form of prejudice that results from a need to classify individuals
    • A problem occurs when biases are based on inaccurate information

Key Concepts

Intersectionality – People have more than one group that they identify with.

The opposite of racist is being anti-racist.

Being an ally is dependent on the context and is a lifelong commitment to self-improvement. You do not self-identify as an ally – Others identify you as an ally and thank you but don’t go around tweeting about being an ally.

First steps:

Optimally we should be leveraging content experts developing curriculum, context experts who understand the environments, and a cultural expert. We need people to give us the dose of reality from the end user perspective.

  • Concept example: Breaking bad news – You need someone with an understanding of the literature, an understanding of the clinical context, and culture might be Inuit patients.


They gave us an activity – think about what we are doing well now and what our challenges are.


Prelearning should be things they do before the simulation (they listed a lot of options like readings, definitions, notes, videos, etc.). A framework for thinking about how to improve out practice was derived from Foronda et al. (2022).


Laura Killam is an experienced nursing educator from Northern Ontario with a keen interest in improving student learning through innovation. For more information please visit http://nursekillam.com/.


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